William Godwin's Diary


An uprising against Russian rule began in Poland in November 1830, inspired by the July revolution in France, and at first seemed likely to secure Polish independence and union with Lithuania. However, in May 1831, the Polish army was defeated at Ostrolenska and when the tsar’s army re-entered Warsaw later in the year it mounted huge reprisals, executing hundreds of revolutionaries.

See Harry Hearder, Europe in the Nineteenth Century, 1830-1880 2nd edn (London and New York: Longman, 1988), pp. 326-27.