William Godwin's Diary


Napoleon Bonaparte led the French armies over the Alps to retake Italy. After a bloody battle which he came close to losing at Marengo, near Alessandria in Piedmont, Bonaparte triumphed and the Austrians were driven from Italy. Fighting broken out again in November but French forces, led by General Moreau, defeated the Austrians and Bavarians at Hohenlinden outside Munich. The treaty of Luneville forced the Austrians to adhere to the terms of the earlier treaty of Campo Formio, accepting French puppet republics in Italy and their various territories in central Europe. Great Britain was now the only power at war with France.

See Franklin L. Ford, A General History of Europe 1780-1830 (London: Longman, 1970), pp. 191-93.